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    面向世界科技前沿,面向国家重大需求,面向国民经济主战场,率先实现科学技术跨越发展,率先建成国家创新人才高地,率先建成国家高水平科技智库,率先建设国际一流科研机构。

    ——中国科学院办院方针

    首页 > 访谈·视点

    周成虎:未来地理空间的智能时代

    2019-09-26 光明日报
    【字体:

    语音播报

      今天我们处在一个科技变革时代。大数据成为重要的生产资料,是工业社会的资源。在这个全球竞争的时代,谁掌握了数据,谁就掌握了发展的主动权。智慧城市将会导演未来社会的变革,一切都需要大数据的支撑。

      当今,人类社会正在从电气时代走向智能时代,从信息社会走向智能社会。一切都需要用新的科学和技术来认知??墒俏颐腔褂泻芏辔侍饷挥薪饩?。2017年《科学》创刊125年,在其专刊中提出了125个最具挑战的科学问题。例如,到底地球能负担多少人口?生态系统会不会对全球的变暖有反应?这些问题的求解,都与从事地理信息研究的人有关。

      5G时代的地理信息是什么样子?今天有网络通信卫星,有导航卫星,有对地观测的遥感卫星,未来将是空天地一体化的观测。用一个网络来对地球观测,同时还有大量的地面传感网,海量的实时动态数据去处理。因此,我们必须改造现有的地理信息技术,要像制造汽车一样把时空数据按需测量,按需生产,为农业、环境、国土等各行业提供科学数据,也为科研和教育提供实时、动态的地理信息数据,将来中小学生上地理课不是看地图,而是要使用中国的数字地球体系。

      如果这么来说,毫无疑问,需要用新的人工智能手段来分析处理这样的大数据。例如,在过去,我们无法回答地球上有多少棵树,今天通过高分遥感影像和地面的模型一起,可以测算出地球上大约有3.14万亿棵树。也可以回答到底现在全球有多少个油气罐,来做能源支撑测算。

      用高分遥感影像加上现代人工智能算法,适应全球的动态观测,这一切都基于大数据+人工智能。所以说,今天人类社会进入了人工智能时代?;谡庑┬录际?,可以实现对每个人通行路径的引导。在统一的时空认知体系中,不仅认知到人本身,还认识到多种流向的重要性。

      没有人工智能就无法发现大数据中所隐含的知识和规律。因此,地理信息行业需要大力发展空间智能,推动时空新认知。笔者相信地理信息服务将会给人们提供所需要的信息,并提供新的认知。

      在未来的地理信息服务中,会出现增强性质的全新地图。现在,二维地图有二维地图的用途,三维地图有三维地图的用途,全景地图有全景地图的用途,以后会出现全息地图。

      今天,地理信息已在资源开发、环境?;?、社会安全监控等领域得到广泛应用。人们所看到的一切人、事、物都和地理信息联在一起,载人航天和探月也都用到GIS。如果再向前思考,未来人车融合,人们需要的是不是高清地图加上空间智能,并由此驱动无人驾驶?所以说,下一代的地理信息建设和应用将会进入全空间的时代。笔者相信,未来地理信息产业将会进入一个无比辉煌的时代,进入地理空间的智能时代。

     ?。ㄗ髡撸褐艹苫?,系中国科学院院士)

    打印 责任编辑:侯茜
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