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    面向世界科技前沿,面向国家重大需求,面向国民经济主战场,率先实现科学技术跨越发展,率先建成国家创新人才高地,率先建成国家高水平科技智库,率先建设国际一流科研机构。

    ——中国科学院办院方针

    首页 > 学者风采

    宇宙第一缕曙光的“追光者”

    ——访天文学家武向平

    2019-09-26 中国新闻网 李晗雪
    【字体:

    语音播报

    资料图:武向平。中新社记者 孙自法 摄

      宇宙如何从黑暗走向光明?第一代发光天体怎样诞生?

      全国政协委员、中国科学院院士、“宇宙第一缕曙光探测”项目首席科学家武向平,正是这个神秘课题的“追光者”。

      这位10余年来常年在新疆天山高寒地带“宇宙第一缕曙光探测”(宇宙诞生后第一代恒星探测)基地工作的天体物理学家,接受采访时刚回到北京。他有一种探险家式的活力,风趣健谈,喜欢面对面给公众做科普。

      上世纪80年代初,武向平还在物理学专业读硕士时,“类星体”的能源机制引起了他浓厚的兴趣。他说,当时很想弄明白为何类星体如此明亮,于是开始自学天文学;由此“越陷越深”,改行研究天文,至今已30多年。

      武向平说,头10余年,他是一个“清高”的理论研究者。直到2003年,他对宇宙第一代恒星的探测产生了兴趣,遂开始“宇宙第一缕曙光探测”项目,从此成为一名观测天文工作者。

      “做理论的时候真是想象不到野外工作的艰苦?!蔽湎蚱剿?,当初自己按理论推想,认为一个月一定能完成探测?!敖峁嗄昊姑蛔鐾辍?。

      他说,建设基地要做很多与天文无关的事,如和当地牧民打交道,学盖房子,以及解决实际操作中各种各样未曾想到的小问题?!跋氚旆ㄆ帘蔚缭吹男藕鸥扇啪图负趸宋乙荒晔奔?,解决蓄电池温差电流不稳定又花了一年时间?!?/p>

      武向平同时还是国际大科学工程SKA(平方公里阵列射电望远镜)中国首席科学家。SKA是国际天文界将要建造的世界最大综合孔径射电望远镜,也是人类迄今为止计划建造的最宏伟天文观测设备,其科学目标包括“探测宇宙大爆炸后如何形成第一代发光天体”“检验爱因斯坦广义相对论”“直接探测超大质量双黑洞产生的引力波”“寻找地外文明”等前沿科学问题。

      据武向平介绍,中国研发和制造SKA蝶形天线等设备的能力非常出色,但处理SKA数据的技术却尚未完全掌握,“这个领域的人才奇缺”。

      他说,许多人、包括一些政府管理层都有误解,认为处理数据只需有强大的计算机;然而处理SKA科学数据的程序需要天文学家编写。另一种误解是,等SKA运行后、再培养相关人才也不迟;但人才培养需要10年左右的时间。

      为何年轻人不愿投入这个领域?主因是短期难出成果,影响毕业、评职称。武向平过去10余年依据自行设计建造的低频干涉阵列21CMA摸索编写处理软件,期间只发表了两篇论文,但解决的都是实际问题。

      为了不让造好的设备变成“为人作嫁”,武向平积极向多方呼吁重视和支持本领域人才培养,也希望现行学术考核制度能有所改变。

      政协履职,是他为科研发声的重要平台。

      2013年,武向平担任全国政协委员。他说,数次提案、意见书等都能及时回复,问题得到解决,因此他总是认真对待政协的提案工作。关乎科技发展,关乎社会民生……他向记者展示政协提案书,聊起履职经历。

      “政协里汇集了科技界人才,可以反映自然科学研究、应用开发、教育等各方面的成就和问题?!蔽湎蚱剿?。

      不过,于他个人而言,政协还是一个学习的平台。

      “通过在政协和各行业专家交流,才知道各领域发展现状和正在攻坚的瓶颈。很多改进措施已经在做,只是成效尚慢?!蔽湎蚱剿?,各领域专家平??蒲腥ψ咏险?,但在政协平台,有机会广泛交流学习,每次都收获颇丰。他笑称,这也让他不再当“愤青”。

      今年是人民政协成立70周年,也是新中国成立70年。武向平说,天文学的发展依赖观测设备发展,是一门“吃饱了饭才能做”的学问。而近几十年来,随着国家经济实力的提升,LAMOST(郭守敬望远镜)、FAST(“中国天眼”)等顶尖天文设备渐次建成,天文研究的硬件条件可谓“巨变”。

      武向平相信,再过十余年,很多领域定能步入国际第一梯队。而挂在他心头的,是SKA的队伍建设。

    打印 责任编辑:陈潇
    • 卢永根:唯愿稻香飘遍祖国大地

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