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    面向世界科技前沿,面向国家重大需求,面向国民经济主战场,率先实现科学技术跨越发展,率先建成国家创新人才高地,率先建成国家高水平科技智库,率先建设国际一流科研机构。

    ——中国科学院办院方针

    首页 > 科学普及 > 科普文章

    有气体流向黑洞

    我国科研团队拼上黑洞吸积理论最后一块拼图

    2019-09-23 中国青年报 张茜
    【字体:

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      即使黑洞看起来就像甜甜圈一样普通,它依旧是世界上最神秘、最受瞩目的天体之一。

      前不久,学术期刊《自然》杂志在线发表了中国极地研究中心、中国科学院国家天文台和中国科学技术大学联合国内外多家科研单位和高校共同完成的一项黑洞研究重要成果,论文题为《供给类星体超大质量黑洞吸积盘燃料的核区快速内流》。

      是的,这项研究就像它的标题一样高深莫测。简单来讲,我国科研团队此次的贡献在于,为一项重要的黑洞理论——吸积理论找到了实实在在的观测证据。

      “星系是宇宙中的基本单元,天文学家认为几乎所有星系中心都存在超大质量黑洞。大多数星系中的超大质量黑洞是‘宁静’的;而有些星系中的超大质量黑洞是‘活动’的,有大量气体向黑洞流动形成发光的吸积盘,这种星系中心的亮度远超过星系总体平均亮度,我们称这种星系为类星体?!备寐畚牡淖髡咧?、中国极地研究中心南极天文学研究室姜鹏副研究员介绍。

      黑洞为什么黑?因为它质量极大、引力极大,就像一个“吞噬之口”,连光都逃不掉。但“类星体是宇宙中最明亮的天体之一,是遥远星系中的剧烈发光现象”。

      类星体为什么亮?黑洞吸积理论认为,那是因为星系气体下落到距离黑洞约1光年的位置时,由于黑洞的强大引力和高速转动会形成盘状气体流,也就是吸积盘。吸积盘中的气体高速碰撞摩擦,变得极其炽热,释放出相当于万亿倍太阳亮度的能量,发光远远超过了整个星系,因此人们就看到了像甜甜圈似的亮环。

      但这仅仅是一个理论模型,此前没有人亲眼看到气体流入黑洞吸积盘,因此也不能确定到底是什么给发光的“甜甜圈”源源不断地提供燃料??蒲Ъ颐巧踔敛蝗范?,分布在半径约一万光年到10万光年左右的广阔星系中的星际物质是否能够准确地找到黑洞所在地,并且精准地朝着这个方向流动,“这个难度大概相当于百步穿杨射铜钱?!苯粲哪乇扔鞯?。

      而前不久,姜鹏所在团队观测到了气体流入吸积盘的过程,找到了证明黑洞吸积理论的重要证据,给这一理论拼上了最后一块拼图。

      他介绍,气体流入吸积盘之所以难以被证实,其中一个最大的困难就是“黑洞离我们太远,看不清”。他们研究的黑洞之一,距离地球约125亿光年。针对这个问题,这一团队率先提出了利用宇宙中最为丰富的氢和氦元素的光谱吸收线特征来追踪气流的方法。

      通过光谱追踪氢和氦元素,他们发现,气体正背向观测者运动流入星系核区,也就是黑洞方向。并且速度由0持续增加到了5000公里每秒,这表明气体受黑洞引力作用持续加速下落?!?000公里每秒对应着吸积盘外边界处黑洞引力的自由落体速度,从运动学直接证实气体确实达到了吸积盘?!苯艚馐?。

      据介绍,该团队利用氢和氦元素吸收线开展对黑洞吸积和外流过程的研究已有10年,取得了一系列成果,在他们搜索的超过10万个类星体中,有8个向他们展示了这个过程?!坝捎谡庵制辶鹘胛颐鞘酉咦贾狈较虻募嘎史浅P?,只有宇宙把这一过程展示在我们眼前时,我们才可能看见。不过这已足够验证确实有气体流入吸积盘,可以说是‘由0到1’的突破?!彼?。

      “暗物质、暗能量、黑洞、宇宙起源、天体起源、生命起源,合称‘两暗一黑三起源’,是最重大的基础性科学问题?!苯舾嫠呒钦?,黑洞相关研究的重大突破之所以备受瞩目,一个重要的原因就是人类永远都在探究自己的起源。

      一个普通人和黑洞有什么关系?

      姜鹏说,从宇宙演化到星系演化,再到地球演化、生命起源,是一条不可分割的链条。在这个链条上可以看出,星系演化是连接人类和宇宙的必经桥梁。在星系演化的过程中,黑洞和星系的相互作用——包括黑洞吸积和外流过程在内的物质、能量交换等,是极其重要的环节?!拔颐撬幼〉囊酉抵行囊灿幸桓龊诙?,如果它活动起来,我们应该无法生存”。

      难怪,黑洞这么令人着迷。

    打印 责任编辑:侯茜

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