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    面向世界科技前沿,面向国家重大需求,面向国民经济主战场,率先实现科学技术跨越发展,率先建成国家创新人才高地,率先建成国家高水平科技智库,率先建设国际一流科研机构。

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    首页 > 科学普及 > 科普文章

    让地球氧气在5亿年前猛增的神秘力量找到了

    2019-09-05 科技日报 张晔
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      氧气是人类和动物赖以生存的基础。但是,远古时期的地球曾极度缺氧,是一片不折不扣的生命禁区。

      然而,到了距今5.8亿—5.2亿年左右,地球氧气却猛地增加了。似乎有一种神秘力量在左右着地球氧气含量的平衡点。多年来,科学家一直在寻找那股神秘力量。它究竟是什么?又是如何发挥作用的?

      9月2日,这个谜底终于揭开了:中英两国科学家在《自然—地球科学》发表论文,认为声势浩大的造山运动将大量蒸发岩输入海洋,蒸发岩作为一种氧化剂,使得大气和海洋中的氧气快速增加,为大型复杂多细胞生物的快速演化提供了基础。

      两次事件让地球快速“氧化”

      46亿岁“高龄”的地球,曾是一个毫无生机的星球,空气中几乎没有氧气??掌械难醴肿踊共坏较衷诖笃鹾康?.001%。

      荒芜了20多亿年后,在距今约24亿年前,终于发生了第一次增氧事件。大气含氧量达到现代大气含氧量1%的水平,真核生物在地球上首次出现。此时,一些低等的藻类植物进行光合作用,但产生的氧气一直被大气中的还原性气体通过氧化作用消耗掉。

      “这是著名的‘大氧化事件’。它指在相对较短的时间内,大气氧含量显著上升的过程?!敝泄蒲г耗暇┑刂使派镅芯克芯吭敝烀赘嫠呖萍既毡钦?。

      但随后十几亿年里,大气氧含量却没有增加,阻碍了多细胞真核生物的演化。目前学界认为,前寒武纪海洋中进行光合作用的主要是细菌、蓝藻等微生物。它们死亡后的有机质在海水中不断积累,大量消耗海水中的氧气,从而导致缺氧。

      “也就是说,前寒武纪海洋中存在一个巨大有机碳库,阻止了氧含量的增加?!敝烀姿?,这种缺氧的海洋类似于现在的巨大沼泽池,水中大量腐殖的有机质不断消耗着氧气。因此,水质浑浊并缺氧。

      直到距今5.8亿—5.2亿年前后,地球发生第二次大氧化事件,大气中的氧含量增加到现代大气氧含量的60%以上的水平,大洋也全部氧化,导致多细胞真核生物大辐射,以及动物快速起源和寒武纪大爆发。

      经过两次大气快速增氧事件,地球才有了占据现代大气含量21%的氧气,为动物的出现和发展提供了环境基础。

      蒸发岩成为海洋氧化剂

      从浑浊缺氧到清澈富氧,前寒武纪的海洋如同化茧成蝶,究竟是什么原因导致这一巨变呢?

      此前,流行的假说是“生物与环境协同演化模型”。这个模型提出的正反馈机制表现为氧气增加的线性加速,这与距今5.8亿—5.2亿年左右大气和海洋氧气含量多次大规模波动、生物发生阶段性辐射演化的实际情况却是不一致的。

      朱茂炎带领的中英合作团队耗时数年,对距今5.8亿到5.2亿年前后的地质层和生命演化做了进一步的观察和研究,对地层中的碳同位素进行对比分析,提出了一个新的地球系统模型,对这一时期地球氧气迅速增加的原因给出了新的见解。

      他们认为,距今5.7亿年前后,地球上的主要大陆通过拼合形成了一个冈瓦纳超大陆和位于超大陆内部的超级中央造山带,将8亿年前后大量沉积的蒸发岩矿物风化剥蚀输入海洋。据介绍,造山带往往形成相对隆起的山脉,风化能力和往海洋输送物质的能力都会明显加强。恰是此时,即距今8亿年前后,地球上沉积了很厚的蒸发岩。

      “富含硫酸盐的蒸发岩是一种氧化剂,可以氧化海水中的有机质?!敝烀赘嫠呒钦?,通过硫酸盐还原菌对海水中的有机质进行氧化,形成黄铁矿埋藏在沉积物中,导致当时海洋中有机碳库快速减少。

      同时,海洋中有机碳的快速氧化,向大气排放大量二氧化碳,进一步导致大气升温,加强了陆地风化作用和蒸发岩向海洋的输入量,海洋中有机碳库进一步被氧化,使得大气和海洋中的氧气快速增加。

      从此,产生的氧气开始净增。地球上的氧气建立起了新的平衡,而这个平衡一直维持到现在。

      这个新的模型与该时期生物的阶段辐射演化模型更加契合。新模型不仅验证了前寒武纪海洋中巨大有机碳库存在的假说,还为海洋中巨大有机碳库的变化控制着前寒武纪末期地球多次大规模冰期发生的假说提供了支撑。因为海洋中巨大有机碳库如果不被氧化,大气中的二氧化碳就会不断降低,气候就会变得越来越冷。而构造驱动的海洋有机碳库的氧化,向大气中排放大量二氧化碳,气候就变得越来越暖。正是由于海洋的氧化,海洋中有机碳库变小,它作为气候的调节器作用也就减弱,寒武纪之后的地球再也没有发生过类似前寒武纪的“雪球地球”那样的极端冰期气候事件。

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