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    聪明胡蜂的学习之道

    2019-09-09 西双版纳热带植物园
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      胡蜂,也叫黄蜂,属于节肢动物门(Arthropoda)、昆虫纲(Insecta)、膜翅目(Hymenoptera)、胡蜂总科(Vespoidea),是细腰亚目针尾部的一总科,为捕食性蜂类。

      胡蜂总科共分11科:胡蜂科、马蜂科、蜾蠃科、铃腹胡蜂科、狭腹胡蜂科、异腹胡蜂科、长腹胡蜂科、大胡蜂科、长叶胡蜂科、长唇胡蜂科和盖胡蜂科。除最后3 科外在我国都有记载,主要以蜾蠃科、马蜂科、胡蜂科为主,且分布在全国各个地方。

      胡蜂:春天筑巢繁殖,夏天队伍壮大,秋冬慢慢“蛰伏”  

      在度过寒冷的冬天后,胡蜂就开始准备建巢繁殖活动。初始蜂巢由越冬蜂王单独建立,开始的时候会造出十几个巢房,然后产下第一代子。当第一代工蜂开始外出采集之后,蜂王便不会再外出从事采集活动,转而负责产卵繁衍后代的工作。

      随着工蜂的采集队伍渐渐地壮大,蜂群越来越大,到夏末秋初的时候蜂群达到最大群势。这个时候,蜂王会产下一定数量的雄蜂和子代蜂王,子代蜂王与老蜂王之间可以和谐相处。

      等到性成熟后,子代蜂王飞出巢外进行婚飞,完成交配,不久独自进入越冬状态,秋冬季气温下降至6-10℃时开始准备越冬。而雄蜂和工蜂会慢慢地死去。

      到翌年春天来临进入开繁阶段,胡蜂完成了一个完整的生活周期(图1)。

       

      图1 胡蜂生活周期演变过程 

      胡蜂蜂王、工蜂和雄蜂:各司其职 

       

      图2 胡蜂的工蜂、雄蜂与蜂王 

      胡蜂为全变态昆虫,有卵、幼虫、蛹和成虫四个生长发育阶段。其中蜂王生殖系统发育完全,具有完全生育能力,而工蜂生殖系统发育不完全,不具有完全生育能力(图2)。

      蜂王是上一年秋季交配完成并成功越冬后整个蜂群的缔造者和统治者,个体在蜂群中最大,群体中的所有个体均为该蜂王的后代。蜂王负责建立初始蜂巢和繁衍工作。

      工蜂与蜂王的表型除了个体小一些外并没有多大的区别,是蜂群中的主要成员,占蜂群个体数量的绝大部分。工蜂具有明确的劳动分工,负责整个社会群体的扩巢、保温、捕猎食物、采集、饲喂幼虫、清巢、御敌护巢等内外勤工作。幼年工蜂从事比较安全的巢内工作,成年工蜂从事捕食、防御等危险工作。工蜂性情暴烈凶狠,蜇针明显,排毒量大,有很强的攻击力。

      雄蜂只在繁殖交尾季节出现,可与同巢或异巢的少数雌蜂交尾,与雌蜂交尾后不久陆续死亡。

      胡蜂具有良好的学习记忆和行为控制 

       

      图3 胡蜂伸吻行为 

      胡蜂与其他昆虫一样,没有像猴子、狗、大象等动物以及人类那样复杂的大脑结构,大脑结构相比其他动物更为简单,但它们具有良好的学习记忆和行为控制。胡蜂学习记忆的能力是为了适应外界食物源的变化,以获取更多的食物来维持蜂群的生存。所以,胡蜂的学习记忆认知行为能力对胡蜂在生态系统中具有重要的生态学意义。

      那么什么是联想学习记忆呢?当连续给胡蜂以糖水奖励和气味刺激联合起来进行重复刺激之后,单独给胡蜂以气味刺激,胡蜂便会将吻伸出来,因为它们以为又有好吃的来了(图3)。狗和铃铛的故事大家应该熟悉吧?其实就是经典巴甫洛夫条件反射(图4),胡蜂的联想学习记忆也就是采用的这个原理,只是胡蜂学习记忆训练是观察胡蜂的伸吻情况来判断的。

       

      图4 狗和铃铛的巴甫洛夫条件反射原理 

      通常,科研人员在检测胡蜂的学习记忆的时候,为了避免胡蜂对某一气味的偏好性,会对胡蜂进行与联想学习记忆无关的新的气味进行刺激。

      举个例子,科研人员对100只胡蜂进行了测试,对胡蜂进行联想学习训练所用的气味为正己醛(hexane,一种对胡蜂和蜜蜂常用的测试气味,在这里称为联合气味),训练时将该气味与糖水奖励联合起来对胡蜂进行了重复训练(图5),并随后对胡蜂进行定时记忆检测。

      若胡蜂对正己醛气味刺激伸吻了,基本就判定胡蜂对于糖水联合的正己醛气味产生了记忆。但胡蜂可能会对气味本身就有一定的偏好而表现出伸吻的行为,故科研人员在记忆检测的时候对胡蜂联合气味正己醛刺激之后又进行了新气味如壬醛(nonanal,另一种对胡蜂和蜜蜂常用的测试气味,在这里成为非联合气味)刺激。

      学习记忆能力:蜂王最强,雄蜂、工蜂相当 

      实验结果显示,蜂王的学习记忆能力明显高于雄蜂与工蜂,雄蜂与工蜂之间的学习和记忆能力相当(图5、图6)。蜂王是一个蜂群的创造者,在刚开始建巢的时候,所有工作都是蜂王独立完成的,因此蜂王具有出色的学习记忆能力也就不足为奇了。

      雄蜂的一生最大的贡献就是在性成熟后飞出巢外寻求与蜂王交配的机会,交配完成不久后便死亡。雄蜂需要短暂而快速地对周围环境了解和迅速地锁定雄蜂聚集区,进而完成传宗接代的使命。

      工蜂无疑是一个蜂群的主体部分,蜂群中的大部分工作都是由工蜂来完成的,采集工作便是工蜂的主要工作。工蜂需要记住食物源的位置和信息,因此需要时间和空间的记忆来对食物源进行定位,确定最佳采集方案后告知同伴前往采集。

      因此,蜂王、雄蜂和工蜂均具有良好的学习记忆能力来适应整个社会群体中所充当的角色。

       

      图5 胡蜂蜂王、工蜂与雄蜂的学习训练情况 

       

      图6 胡蜂蜂王、工蜂与雄蜂的记忆检测结果 

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