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    面向世界科技前沿,面向国家重大需求,面向国民经济主战场,率先实现科学技术跨越发展,率先建成国家创新人才高地,率先建成国家高水平科技智库,率先建设国际一流科研机构。

    ——中国科学院办院方针

    首页 > 每日科学

    “第九行星”或为黑洞

    为寻找该天体提供一条新途径

    2019-09-30 中国科学报 赵熙熙
    【字体:

    语音播报

    图片来源:GALLERY OF SPACE TIME TRAVEL

      近5年来,越来越多的科学家将太阳系中遥远天体的奇异轨道归咎于一颗尚未被发现的“第九行星”的引力效应。这颗“第九行星”位于海王星以外的冰冷空间。但现在,两位物理学家提出了一个有趣的想法,这可能为寻找该天体提供一条新的途径——如果那颗假想的行星实际上是一个小黑洞又会怎样呢?

      此前的研究已经表明,“第九行星”的质量是地球的5到15倍,与太阳的距离约为450亿公里到1500亿公里。在这样的距离下,一颗天体从太阳接收到的光非常少,使其用望远镜很难被观测到。

      无论行星还是黑洞,想要探测具有这样质量的天体,天文学家可以寻找光在穿过星系的过程中,在该天体引力场周围“弯曲”所形成的奇怪的光团。当天体在一颗遥远的恒星前移动并继续在其轨道上运行时,这些异常现象就会反反复复出现。

      然而物理学家指出,如果这个天体是一个具有行星质量的黑洞,那么它很可能被一圈暗物质光晕所包围,这个光晕的每一面都可以延伸到10亿公里之外。研究人员在预印本服务器arXiv贴出的一篇即将发表的论文中提出,在那个光晕中,暗物质粒子之间的相互作用——尤其是暗物质和暗反物质之间的碰撞——可能会释放出一束伽马射线,从而暴露出天体的存在。

      物理学家将很快开始梳理由位于地球轨道上的费米伽马射线太空望远镜提供的公开数据。自2008年以来,费米伽马射线太空望远镜覆盖了天空的各个方向。他们将特别寻找零星的伽马射线束,这些射线束在天空中缓慢移动,就像从地球上看到的“第九行星”那样。尽管物理学家只是推测,但他们的研究可能会提供关于暗物质和伽马射线暴来源的各种信息——不管它们是在我们的太阳系内,还是在遥远宇宙的另一端。

      关于“第九行星”的故事始于2014年,当时有两位天文学家报告说发现了一颗KBO,名为2012 VP113。其狭长的轨道与太阳不少于80个天文单位。(而冥王星与太阳最远为48个天文单位。)VP113因为其遥远的距离而加入了矮行星塞德娜的行列。在这篇论文中,夏威夷双子座天文台的Chadwick Trujillo与华盛顿哥伦比亚特区卡耐基科学研究所的Scott Sheppard表示,这些天体的轨道表明还有另一颗天体——一颗比地球大的行星,可能存在于250个天文单位的地方。

      轨道计算表明,“第九行星”如果真的存在,其会在一条每1万年到2万年环绕太阳一周的椭圆形轨道上运转。这颗行星永远也不会存在于小于约200个日地距离,或者说200个天文单位的范围内。这一距离使其远远超出了冥王星的范畴,跻身于被称为柯伊伯带的冰冷天体。

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